The quest for sustainable and reliable energy sources is a defining challenge of our time. Among the renewable energy options, hydropower stands out as a mature and proven technology. It harnesses the kinetic energy of moving water, such as rivers and waterfalls, to generate electricity.

This article delves into the reasons why hydropower remains a leading contender in the clean energy race. We’re all about finding ways to power our world without trashing the environment, right? We hear a lot about solar panels and wind farms, but there’s an oldie but goodie that’s been around for ages: hydropower. By looking at both the good and the not-so-good, we’ll figure out if water is the clear winner in the clean energy race.

So, we’re gonna peek under the hood of hydropower, see what makes it tick, and what might be some bumps in the road. This way, we can get a good idea of whether water’s the real deal for the future of clean energy.

“Hydropower is better for the environment than other major sources of electrical power, which use fossil fuels. Hydropower plants do not emit the waste heat and gasses—common with fossil-fuel driven facilities—which are major contributors to air pollution, global warming and acid rain.” 

Understanding Hydropower

“Hydropower relies on the endless, constantly recharging system of the water cycle to produce electricity, using a fuel—water—that is not reduced or eliminated in the process. There are many types of hydropower facilities, though they are all powered by the kinetic energy of flowing water as it moves downstream.”

How Hydropower Works | Department of Energy

Hydropower uses the energy from moving water to create electricity. Let’s explore how it works, its pros and cons, and how it compares to other renewable energy sources.

How Hydropower Makes the Lights Shine

Imagine a rushing river. Hydropower plants use this very force – the kinetic energy of moving water – to create electricity. Here’s the basic process:

  1. Dams and Diversions: Dams are often used to create a reservoir, a large body of stored water. In some cases, rivers might be diverted through canals to capture the water’s power.
  2. Penstocks: Water from the reservoir travels down a penstock, a large pipe, gaining speed due to gravity.
  3. Turbines: The rushing water hits the blades of a turbine, which spins rapidly. The turbine can be like a fancy underwater propeller (Kaplan turbine) for fast-moving water.
  4. Generators: The spinning turbine shaft is connected to a generator. The spinning shaft acts like a super-powered crank, turning the movement into electricity with the help of a special kind of magnet.
  5. Transmission Lines: Then, zap! The electricity travels on special super-powered wires to reach our homes and businesses.

Types of Hydropower Plants:

  • Run-of-river (Diversion): These plants utilize the natural flow of a river without needing a large reservoir.
  • Pumped storage: These power plants work like huge water batteries! When there’s excess electricity and not enough demand, they pump water uphill to a large lake. When more power is needed, they let the water flow down to make electricity again. When there’s high demand, they release the water to generate electricity.
  • Dammed hydro (Impoundment): These are the classic hydropower plants with large dams creating reservoirs for storing water.

For a more detailed description, here are some resources for further information

Types of Hydropower Plants | Department of Energy

Hydroelectric Energy: The Power of Running Water

What are the advantages of hydroelectric energy?

Forget solar panels and wind farms for a second. Water wheels have been around forever as a clean energy source! Why do some people think moving water is still the king of clean energy? Can it stay on top compared to the new ways we’re making clean power? Let’s find out!

The Allure of Hydropower: Advantages

Hydropower boasts several attractive features:

  • Reliable and Dispatchable: Sunshine and wind power only work when the sun is shining or the wind is blowing. But hydropower can make electricity anytime we need it, like a reliable friend! This makes it a crucial source of baseload power for the grid.
  • Mature Technology: Hydropower ain’t new. It’s been around for a long time and folks know how to make it work well to create electricity.
  • Clean Energy Source: Unlike burning coal or gas, hydropower doesn’t pollute the air as much when it’s making electricity. It’s much cleaner!
  • Additional Benefits: Big hydropower dams can do more than just make electricity! They can also:
    • Stop floods: They act like giant water stoppers, holding back floodwater and keeping towns safe.
    • Help farms grow: They can release water to help farmers water their crops.
    • Be fun!: Sometimes, you can swim, fish, or even go boating near dams (but always check the rules first!).

Disadvantages of Hydroelectric Energy

The Other Side of the Coin: Disadvantages of Hydropower

Despite its advantages, hydropower also has some drawbacks:

  • Environmental Impact: Big dams can mess up the natural flow of rivers. This can make it harder for fish to swim upstream to lay eggs, and it can hurt the plants and animals that live in the water.
  • Social Impact: Dam construction can displace communities and disrupt traditional livelihoods.
  • High Initial Costs: Building large hydropower projects, particularly dams, can be expensive.
  • Geographical Limitations: Suitable locations for large-scale hydropower development are limited.

Hydropower vs. Other Renewables: Weighing the Options

Hydropower isn’t the only clean energy contender. Here’s a quick comparison with other popular options:

  • Solar: Solar power is becoming cheaper and cleaner, but it only works when the sun is shining and requires a lot of space to function. It’s not as simple as flicking a light switch whenever you want.
  • Wind: Wind energy is another cost-effective source, but like solar, it’s not dispatchable and relies on wind availability.
  • Geothermal: Hot springs deep underground can be a reliable workhorse for power, but you have to find them first. They ain’t everywhere, like hidden treasure stashed in special spots on Earth.

The Future of Hydropower: Balancing Needs and Innovation

Hydropower remains a vital source of clean energy. However, the future lies in finding a balance between energy needs and environmental protection. Here are some ongoing efforts:

  • Small-scale Hydropower: Smaller-scale hydropower projects with minimal environmental impact are gaining traction.
  • Hydrokinetic Technologies: Instead of dams, some people are thinking about underwater pinwheels (turbines) to capture the power of moving water without messing with rivers. It’s like harnessing the energy but keeping things natural. These are new ideas, but they might be a good option for clean energy in the future!
  • Sustainable Dam Operations: People who run hydropower plants are learning how to use them without messing up the rivers and wildlife as much. It’s like finding a way to keep the lights on without bothering the fish and plants in their homes.

Should we still invest in hydroelectric energy?

Hydropower, harnessing the power of moving water to generate electricity, is a veteran player in the clean energy game. Hydropower might not be the latest gadget, but it’s a dependable and well-established way to make electricity. It’s also a popular choice for clean energy investment around the world. Let’s dive into the data and analyze the advantages and disadvantages to see if hydropower deserves a spot in your clean energy portfolio.

The Allure of Hydropower: Advantages Backed by Numbers

  • Reliable Powerhouse: Hydropower boasts a remarkable capacity factor (average power output compared to maximum) of around 40-60%, significantly higher than solar (20-30%) and wind (25-35%). This translates to consistent electricity generation, a crucial quality for a stable grid.
  • Clean Credentials: A 2021 report by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) highlights that hydropower contributes to roughly 18% of global electricity generation, with minimal greenhouse gas emissions during operation. This makes it a significant player in combating climate change.
  • Long-Term Value: Hydropower plants can last a long time, like 50 to 100 years if you take care of them. This means the electricity they produce can become cheaper over time, unlike some other clean energy sources that require more frequent repairs or replacements. Multi-Benefit Champion: Beyond electricity generation, hydropower dams can offer additional benefits. The International Hydropower Association (IHA) estimates that hydropower contributes to 16% of global irrigation and supports vital flood control measures.

Data-Driven Disadvantages: Weighing the Drawbacks

  • High Upfront Costs: Building large-scale hydropower projects, particularly dams, can be expensive. The World Bank estimates the average construction cost of a large dam project at $46 million per megawatt (MW) of capacity. While operational costs are low, the initial investment can be a significant hurdle.
  • Environmental Impact: Big dams can mess up the natural flow of rivers. This can make it harder for fish to swim upstream to lay eggs, and it can hurt the plants and animals that live in the water. A 2020 study published in Science Advances found that global dam construction has trapped an estimated 4% to 12% of global river sediment, impacting downstream ecosystems.
  • Social Considerations: Large-scale dam projects can displace communities and disrupt traditional livelihoods. A 2019 report by the World Commission on Dams says it’s important to think about how dams might affect people living nearby before building them. They also say it’s a good idea to talk to the people in those communities about the project.
  • Geographical Limitations: Not all places are good for building big hydropower plants that make a lot of electricity. We need rivers with strong currents and specific locations (like mountains) to make them work well. Mountainous regions with fast-flowing rivers offer the most ideal locations, restricting geographical options.

Investment Considerations: Beyond the Data

  • The data shows us both the good and bad sides of hydropower, but there’s more to think about too!
  • Project Scale: Smaller-scale, run-of-the-river hydropower plants often have a lower environmental impact compared to large dams.
  • Technological Advancements: New technologies like hydrokinetic turbines, which capture energy from moving water without needing dams, are showing potential for helping the environment. This might be a way to get clean energy without hurting the environment as much.
  • Regulatory Environment: Government regulations and policies regarding hydropower development can vary significantly. Understanding the local regulations is crucial before investing.

Investing in Hydropower: A Measured Approach

Hydropower remains a vital source of clean energy. However, responsible investment requires careful consideration of both its advantages and potential downsides. Big or small, new tech or old, we need to make sure hydropower plays nice with nature. Three things to check: project size, the kind of tools they’re using, and the local rules. That way, clean energy can stay clean! If we focus on ways to keep things clean and natural, hydropower can still be a big player in getting clean energy in the future!

Data Sources:
  • Science Advances:
  • World Commission on Dams:

Comparing hydro and solar power

The fight for clean energy supremacy is heating up! Hydropower and solar power are both leading contenders, but which reigns supreme? We’re gonna look at some charts and info to see how good hydropower and solar power are at making clean energy. This will help you pick the best one for what you need.

Reliability & Dispatchability: Hydropower Takes the Crown

Hydropower boasts an impressive capacity factor (average power output compared to maximum) of around 40-60%. This translates to consistent electricity generation, a crucial quality for a stable grid. Data from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) highlights this advantage:

  • Hydropower Capacity Factor: 40-60% (IRENA, 2021) 
  • Solar Power Capacity Factor: 20-30% (IRENA, 2021) 

Imagine a giant water battery! Dams store water, allowing electricity generation on-demand, regardless of current water flow. Solar power, on the other hand, relies on sunshine. While highly efficient on sunny days, it needs battery storage to provide consistent power at night or during cloudy periods.

Environmental Impact: Solar Power Shines Brighter

While both are cleaner than fossil fuels, hydropower has a larger ecological footprint. Big dams can mess up the natural flow of rivers, making it harder for fish to travel and hurting the plants and animals that live underwater. A study done in 2020 showed dams can also trap a bunch of riverbed stuff, which hurts the environment further down the river. Solar power, on the other hand, doesn’t hurt the environment while it’s working, but making the solar panels themselves can have some impact.

Cost & Land Use: Solar Power Offers a Brighter Future

Building dams is expensive, making hydropower’s initial investment high. The World Bank estimates the average construction cost of a large dam project at $46 million per megawatt (MW) of capacity (World Bank, 2019: However, maintenance costs are relatively low. Solar power boasts lower upfront costs, typically in the range of $1.32-3.27 per watt (Wp) according to the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) (SEIA, 2023: [invalid URL removed]). Ongoing battery storage needs can add to the expense. Hydropower requires significant land for dams and reservoirs. Solar power, on the other hand, needs less land and can even be integrated into rooftops or developed areas.

The Verdict: A Clean Energy Duo

Both hydropower and solar power are valuable players in the clean energy game. Hydropower is reliable and can be turned on and off easily to meet electricity demands. Solar power is cheaper to get started and doesn’t hurt the environment as much while it’s running.

The ideal choice depends on specific needs:

  • For consistent, reliable power, especially in regions with strong water flow, hydropower might be a good option.
  • For areas with ample sunlight and a focus on reducing environmental impact, solar power could be a strong contender.
  • The best way to get clean energy for the future is to use a mix of different sources, like hydropower and solar power. We can find the best way to get clean energy for everyone by considering things like how dependable it is, its impact on the environment, its cost, and how much space it needs.

The future of renewable energy

Solar Power:

  • Cost Reduction: Solar panels are cheap, which makes solar power an even better choice for getting electricity than before.
  • Efficiency Improvements: Scientists are still working on making solar panels even better! They’re trying to build panels that can squeeze more electricity out of every ray of sunshine.
  • Integration and Storage: Getting better at storing solar power is key! With better batteries, we can use more solar energy and connect it to the main electricity grid. This way, even when the sun isn’t shining, we can still use the solar power we saved up.
  • Solar Farm Advancements: In the future, solar farms might get even cooler! We might see things like solar panels floating on water and even solar panels that work together with farms to grow crops.
  • Wind Power:
    • Offshore Expansion: Wind farms built out in the ocean are expected to become much more common. This is because the winds are stronger and steadier out there, so they can generate more electricity.
    • Turbine Advancements: They’re building even bigger and better windmills! These new ones will be able to catch more wind and make more electricity.
    • Floating Turbines: Just like solar panels can now float on water, wind turbines might be able to too! This would allow them to be placed in new areas where they can catch more wind and generate even more clean energy.
  • Other Renewables:
    • Hydropower: Building giant dams might become less popular because they can hurt the environment. But there are other ways to use the power of rivers and tides to generate clean energy, and those methods might become more common in the future! These are called “run-of-the-river” and “tidal” hydropower.
    • Geothermal Energy: Scientists are working on ways to make geothermal energy easier and cheaper to use in more places! Geothermal power uses the Earth’s heat to make electricity, and with some new tricks, it could become a bigger player in the clean energy game.
    • New Technologies: New ideas for capturing energy from waves and using plant-based materials like biofuels are still being developed. However, they have the potential to become part of the clean energy options in the future!
  • Overall Trends:
    • Diversification: In the future, we won’t just use one way to get clean energy. We’ll probably use a mix of different methods, depending on where we are, what resources we have nearby, and how much electricity we need.
    • Smart Grid Integration: To use all these different clean energy sources together like solar, wind, and water, we’ll need smarter electricity grids. These new grids will be better at handling the flow of energy, no matter how much or how little each source is producing at any given time.
    • Policy and Investment: If we want to use more clean energy sources faster, governments and businesses will need to keep helping to pay for research and development. This will make these new clean energy technologies cheaper and easier to use.
  • Here are some resources for further exploration:
  • Remember, this is just a glimpse into the future. The future of clean energy isn’t set in stone. It depends on several factors, including advancements in new technologies, their cost-effectiveness, and governmental decisions regarding energy procurement methods.


Get ready for a clean energy boom! We’re on the verge of a big change in how we power the world, with lots of different technologies ready to take over. Solar power is expected to be a big leader, with prices going down and panels working even better (like the sun is shining brighter on them!). Wind power is also going way up, especially offshore where the winds are stronger and steadier (think giant fans in the ocean!).

Cool new ideas are popping up too, like better batteries for solar power so we can use it all the time, even at night. Plus, we might see solar panels floating on water and even working together with farms to grow crops!

Beyond sunshine and wind, there are other options too. Scientists are also cooking up ways to use Earth’s heat (geothermal energy) more easily in different places. There are even brand new ideas, like getting energy from waves and plants, that could be part of our clean energy toolbox in the future!

  • The key to this bright clean energy future is using a mix of methods! We’ll pick the ones that work best depending on where we live and what resources we have close by. We’ll also need smarter electricity grids to handle all this new clean energy. To make these new methods cheaper and easier to use, governments and businesses need to keep helping to pay for research and development.

The future of clean energy isn’t set in stone, it depends on a bunch of things. But by working together and making smart choices, we can power our world with a clean and sustainable mix of renewable energy sources!

Strengths: A Reliable Workhorse

For a long time, hydropower has been a champion for clean energy. It provides reliable electricity whenever we need it, unlike solar and wind power which depend on the weather (like a light switch we can turn on and off). Dams act like giant water batteries, storing water to use during peak energy times. This makes hydropower super helpful for keeping the electricity grid stable. Plus, the technology is well-established and not too expensive to maintain.

Weaknesses: The Environmental Cost

But there’s a flip side. Building dams can mess up the natural flow of rivers, making it harder for fish to travel and hurting underwater plants and animals. Dams can also trap sediment, making the water quality downstream not as good. On top of that, big dams take up a lot of space and can displace people and wildlife.

The Future of Hydropower: Finding a Balance

Hydropower will probably still be around in the future, especially in places that already have dams and strong water flow. But the focus might shift to smaller dams that don’t hurt the environment as much. Also, as solar and wind power get better and we develop ways to store more energy from them, we might not need to rely on hydropower as much for keeping the grid stable.

The Bottom Line

Hydropower has been a great clean energy source, but we need to consider the environmental impact as we move forward. The key is to find a balance. We can use the advantages of hydropower alongside other cleaner technologies to pave the way for a sustainable energy future.


United States Includes Dam Emissions in UN #Climate Reporting for the First Time: Better accounting can go a long way in establishing a sound policy to tackle the #ClimateCrisis — The Revelator – Coyote Gulch)

The Report of the World Commission on Dams).International Hydropower Association)

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *